The bark was used for food for their horses as well as in medicinal tea. Tagged: gilead, black cottonwood, medicine, tree, natural medicine, CascadiaNow!, PO Box 30181, Seattle, WA 98113. The resin has been used to waterproof boxes and baskets, and the bark has been used to make buckets for storing and carrying food. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. Lay a piece of muslin cloth over a strainer that is sitting on a container. Anchorage. Cottonwood trees can add 6 feet in height each year making them the fastest growing trees in North America. Habitat:  It usually grows on wet to moist sites in floodplains and along rivers. It has a very fragrant aroma. Here?s an interesting bit of information. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Bruised leaves were also placed on cuts as an antiseptic. The resin of cottonwood buds contain a bounty of medicinal properties. Over very low heat, or in the top of a double boiler, stir and melt the beeswax. The leaves of the tree serve as food for caterpillars of various Lepidoptera. Black Cottonwood is the largest hardwood tree in western North America. The bark was boiled and the infusion was used for a gargle to treat sore throats (Gunther 1945). The Squaxin used the young shoots of cottonwood for making the sweat lodge, and also used them for lashings and tying thongs. Quinault – kalle’tsalx Squaxin – stsa’pats. A compound called salacin, which is found in the leaves, buds and bark of cottonwood, has been proven to lower fevers and reduce inflammation and pain. The balsam is not water soluble, so it is necessary to extract it either with fat, by macerating it in oil or cocoa butter in a warm place (do not boil, otherwise the buds might get burnt), or to prepare an alcoholic extract (tincture). Native Alaskan and exotic plants used by wildlife. Use by People: Natives used Black Cottonwood for many medicinal purposes. The tall tree with its furrowed bark and a yellowish hue is a member of the willow family (Salicaceae), and like other poplars, contains resins and cambium with medicinal, food and material uses. Young shoots were used to make sweat lodges. How Cherokees Used Trees of Southern Appalachia for Food, Medicine, and Craft. Gunther, Erna. The buds can also be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. Young shoots were used to make sweat lodges. The resins of this tree feed the bees and butterflies and the resin is collected by bees to protect the hive. The Balm of Gilead hides in the buds of the great cottonwood and the bark and twigs heal all manner of pains and inflammations. The gum that exudes from the burls was placed directly on wounds and cuts. Scans/Pictures: Eastern Cottonwood (sanded) Eastern Cottonwood (sealed) Eastern Cottonwood (endgrain) Eastern Cottonwood (endgrain 10x) Subscribe. Edible Parts: Flowers, Inner bark, Sap, Edible Uses: Flour, Salad, Vegetable, Potherb, Drink, Inner bark - raw or dried. Cottonwood resin can also be dissolved in a fixed oil such as extra virgin olive oil, using a mild heat method. & A.Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw, (POP-yu-lus ball-sum-IF-er-uh subspecies tri-ko-KAR-pa). Posts Tagged With: medicinal uses of tulip poplar. The bark of the mature Black Cottonwood is deeply furrowed, dark grey with young shoots often angled in cross-section. The tree just happens to disperse its seeds at the same time that other plants release their pollen. Just before they open, the leaf buds will exude a drop of red to yellow colored resin. An infusion of the bark was used for sore throats. Bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. project Rain City Slam presents it’s 2019 Grand Slam featuring legendary poet Wil Gibson. The leaves are a food source for insects in the water, the insects are then eaten by salmon and trout. This is Rain City Slam’s most fierce competition of the year! A … I place my oiled buds near my heater and keep it warm without a stove top. The resin is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, febrifuge, stimulating and expectorant. Many parts of the cottonwood tree are medicinal. Knowledge and use of Indigenous plants by Native Americans, University of Washington Press. Save in an airtight container in the fridge until you are going to use. Do not allow the olive oil to get hot enough that it boils! They stabilize river banks and provide shade. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for sprains, inflammation, muscle pains etc. The gum from the buds was used to treat baldness, sore throats, whooping cough and tuberculosis. Black Cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) is a native broadleaf tree that grows in the wet regions of the Western Washington lowlands (including Seattle). The cottonwood oil is now ready for use. In the Landscape: Black Cottonwood is not a good choice for most gardens. Many parts of the cottonwood tree are medicinal. First, place your buds in a double boiler and cover them with olive oil so they are fully covered ½ to 1 inch above the buds. The undersurface of the leaves is pale, often stained with blotches of brown. Internally, the tea is used in the treatment of lung ailments and coughs. So, if you are allergic to aspirin, you will probably react to Balm of Gilead tincture as well. Black Cottonwood is also a favorite nesting or perching tree for many bird species (Bald Eagle, owls, ospreys, hawks, hummingbirds, woodpeckers, etc.). Boil as much water as will cover your cuttings. Black Cottonwood                                 The Willow Family– Salicaceae, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. You will need: extra virgin olive oil (enough to cover the buds), a double boiler, a blender (only if you are making a large amount), a pressing cloth like muslin, a strainer and a glass jar for long-term storage. Most propolis research focuses on resins from forests where bees collect mainly from the poplar (Populus) genus and, to a lesser extent, beech, chestnut, birch, and conifer trees. The inner bark was used to reinforce other fibers in spinning. This would be used externally or internally for pain relief, inflammation or fever. Black cottonwood trees are important for stream habitats. To use – Get the cuttings of the plants you want to root. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. Uses: Reforestation, ripairan area restoration, windbreaks, cover for birds, habitat; it is often used to control flooding. beeswax. Cover the cottonwood buds with a good organic olive oil. Heat on a very low setting. “Perhaps you have noticed that even in the slightest breeze you can hear the voice of the cottonwood tree; this we understand is its prayer to the Great Spirit, for not only men, but all things and all beings pray to Him continually in different ways.”. Commercial extracts are produced from the fragrant buds for use as a perfume in cosmetics. Growth: Black Cottonwood grows very fast, several feet each year. Let it set. It is easily propagated by cuttings; and fresh seeds germinate easily. Cottonwood trees feature male and female parts on separate trees (female trees are the ones that produce the cottony substance that gives the tree its name). Tilford, Gregory L., Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West, ISBN 0-87842-359-1. Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) Related Articles: Poplar, Cottonwood, and Aspen: What’s What? by Todd Walker. As a folk medicine, Cottonwood and other Willow family members were used for wet, damp respiratory afflictions. Because cottonwood is high in antioxidants, it is useful for healing the skin, including sunburn. “There is a Balm in Gilead, To make the wounded whole,” -traditional African American Spiritual, The biblical Balm of Gilead is nearly indistinguishable from bee propolis; Balm of Gilead is made of resin from various poplars, including P. balsamifera, P. nigra, and P. gileadensis.”-Broadhurst and Duke 1998. WTU Herbarium Image Collection, Plants of Washington, Burke Museum, E-Flora BC, Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, USDA Forest Service-Fire Effects Information System, Virginia Tech ID Fact Sheet + Landowner Fact Sheet, Native Plants Network, Propagation Protocol Database, Native American Ethnobotany, University of Michigan, Dearborn. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} Black poplar tree in summer, species of cottonwood poplar native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa. As a child growing up in Oregon, I loved to walk in the cottonwood snow drifts. Rabbits and hares eat the bark. FLOWERS Male and Female flowers in catkins, on separate plants; male flowers with 40-60 stamens, female flowers with 3 stigmas. Research shows that the Cottonwood tree seeds are not the bringer of sneezes and sniffles, but the healer of such maladies. According to Indian legend, a cottonwood leaf was twisted around a finger, and it formed a cone and tepees were discovered." The leaves are alternate, deciduous, thick and oval with heart-shaped base and sharp-pointed tip. **Use of articles and photos on this site is permitted for educational purposes only. They would not burn the wood but would often listen to the trees for direction. Cottonwood oil and balm is especially helpful for swollen arthritic joints and sore muscles. It is still commonly employed in modern herbalism with much the same uses. Global Acts of Compassion is Nourishing ... http://www.motherearthliving.com/health-and-wellness/inside-plants-8.aspx. Comments: So named for its cotton-like strands that accompany the tree’s seeds in the spring. The tree flowers before leaves open up. Learn to harvest the … Whenever you make a product that concentrates the compounds of an edible plant the product may not be edible anymore, use caution if using any concentrated product internally. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. I hear the other humans calling the Black Cottonwood a nuisance or a tall weed. Remove twigs. Wetland designation: FAC, Facultative, it is equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands. The fluffy seeds can travel 20 miles on a breeze, they can be carried on streams and rivers and rest in a vernal pool. The species is native to western North America, and is a coastal species ranging from Alaska to California and as far inland as the Rockies. Sample Formulation with Cottonwood Oil . Traditional uses and benefits of Cottonwood Inner bark was consumed by numerous native North American Indian tribes in order to prevent scurvy. Step 3 – Press out the oil. Bruised leaves were also placed on cuts as an antiseptic. Cottonwood will plant itself and take root where few other trees will grow. Pour a couple of cups of buds and oil into the muslin, bundle it up, twist the cloth and squeeze with all your might. Buds are sticky with resin and are fragrant. Chemical analyses indicate that the bees’ propolis is almost chemically identical to these tree resins and is similar to medicinal gums such as boswellia and myrrh. Making a rooting compound with Black cottonwood in 5 easy steps! Distribution of Black Cottonwood from USGS ( “Atlas of United States Trees” by Elbert L. Little, Jr. ). This will help the resin to more easily release into the oil. The wood from the tree was used to smoke fish (mostly inland tribes). The glue is thought to be very antibacterial and inhibits microbes that constantly threaten the environment of the hive. Heat for several days. It is known as a good light wood. Strip away all the leaves and throw the leaves away. Black cottonwood buds may hold the finest natural fragrance found in the Los Padres National Forest. Related Species: White Poplar (Populus alba) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) It is usually ground into a powder and used as a flour, this is normally mixed with other flours for making bread etc.. The sweet-smelling sticky sap, also known as "Balm of Gilead", has been used for centuries to treat a variety of skin troubles, from cuts and scrapes to minor burns and bruises. Names: Black Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar. They take root in pure sand or gravel along riverbanks. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). The resin from buds were used in a poultice with crushed cottonwood leaves to treat pains and rheumatism. I am always surprised when the humans around me complain of the mess or the possibility of allergies. The wood and buds were burned down to charcoal and used as ceremonial incense. Description of Values. Medicinal use of Eastern Cottonwood: The bark contains salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. Pour oil and buds into the blender. A soap and a hair wash were made from the ashes of burned cottonwood. The resin is used in medicine and perfume. Historically, much of the country was forested and the people had to find medicinal uses for the forest trees to stay healthy. The gooey resin smells similar to jasmine. MAKING COTTONWOOD BUD OIL-YOUR OWN BALM OF GILEAD. Step 2 – Gently heat. The bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. Seeds ripen late May to July. Relationships: There are about 15 species of Populus (Poplars, Cottonwoods and Aspens) native to North America. Browse 43 black cottonwood stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar, Tacamahac, Balm of Gilead and Populus balsamifera. These do not have as much resin and are less preferred for medicine than the leaf buds. Paint and dyes were made from the yellow and red resins of early spring buds. Trichocarpa means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds. The infused oil can be added to beeswax to make a balm or salve. Simply place the cottonwood buds in a crock pot, add olive oil to just cover the plant material, turn on low, and with the lid off, let the heat do its work for about 5 days. The gum from the spring buds was used to waterproof baskets and boxes. Foraging wild food requires practice, knowledge, and experience on your landscape. It is in his book “Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West“. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. The ‘balm of gilead’ of the Bible is a resin-exuding tree related to myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), frankincense (Boswellia spp.) As a folk medicine, Cottonwood and other Willow family members were used for wet, damp respiratory afflictions. Seeds may be dispersed by wind or water. CN! It is best used in the spring. What you’ve read in books and watched on YouTube may not apply to your locale. In the spring, bees chew the resin from the cottonwood and digest it with their own enzymes to make bee medicine and glue called Propolis. Beavers find it most palatable and use it for dam building. Catkins appear before the leaves in the spring. Apple – Tree bark is used to treat fevers and diarrhea. Today Black Cottonwood is used for the interior layers of plywood and for paper products, especially high-grade … The seeds are covered with white, fluffy hairs that help propel them through the air. The resin contains “salicin” – the same compound that gives aspirin its pain relieving and fever reducing benefits. Place back in the double boiler. They used the gum of the burls on cuts and wounds. Native Americans used cottonwood trees for dugout canoes and even transformed its bark into a medicinal tea. The fruits are hairy, rounded, 3-part capsules that split to release numerous cottony seeds that float through the air. Meyer, Joseph E. (1918) (Revised 1970) The Herbalist, Meyer Books Publishing, Pojar & McKinnon, (1994) Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska, Lone Pine Publishing, Vancouver, British Columbia. Wind-driven, the seeds cannot survive in the shade of their parent and so they seek their fortunes floating and spilling over into every biome of Cascadia. It contains substances that are known to inhibit the growth of cancerous cells (caffeic acid phenethyl ester-CAPE) (Broadhurst and Duke – 1998) When to Harvest:  Buds appear on cottonwood trees from late winter to early spring. Posted on March 8, 2016 by Survival Sherpa. It can grow to 150’ (50m) or more and can live 200-300 years. (Gunther 1945). Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. The resin was extracted and revered as a great healing salve. Turn on and blend just until the buds are mostly broken open. Many medicinal uses. Place your plant cuttings into the rooting hormone (only the bottom portion of the stems) and let soak for a couple hours, then plant in a pot with soil and care for as usual. Notice I used the word your land. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. It is used particularly in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Deer and elk use it more for cover than for forage. The gum-like sap was even used as a glue or as waterproofing. Other uses include kite sticks, strawberry boxes, and paper. According to Pojar and McKinnon the Nuxalk/Kwakwaka’wakw and other Cascadian First People used the sweet inner bark and cambium tissues as food and medicine. … The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. There are many different firewood species to choose from. Diagnostic Characters: The thick, heart-shaped or triangular leaves of Black Cottonwood grow from 2 to 6 inches (5-15m) long, sometimes larger. For larger amounts, using a blender will save you a considerable amount of time. Use by wildlife: Streamside Black Cottonwoods create favorable fish habitat by providing stream bank stability, increasing nutrient availability by the shedding of leaves and twigs, and creating a shaded microclimate. Huff worthy. I looked up into the sky and watched the fluffy seeds twirl and dance above me. The bees use the resin as a type of bee glue. You can use any glass jar with a tight fitting lid. Pour into clean tins or jars. Using trees as medicine breaks allows for some rather interesting preparations, as just about any part of the tree can be medicinal. Black Cottonwoods make millions of seeds, usually in the last week of May and the seeds are dispersed on the winds- casting themselves as far from the mother tree as possible. Once oil stops dripping, empty the buds into a compost container and continue pressing until done. It should be noted however, that some people develop an allergic reaction, which is more common with the tincture than with the ointment. This will also cause the other plant to root. (Butterflies, moths and skippers). Many kinds of animals use the twigs of Populus balsamifera for food. You can also explore another method of making the infused oil by Michael Moore. If it is too liquid, melt with a little more beeswax. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Within 24 hours of hitting its mark, the seed will sprout. Native Americans used Cottonwood trunks for dugout canoes. Place directly in a double boiler and cover completely with olive oil. Pour the boiling water onto the cuttings and leave overnight. Because of its salicin content, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments. Great Northwest Productions, a CN! You can smell the fragrance in the air on the first warm days. It, however, is very good wildlife habitat and is very valuable for quick restoration along floodplains and other moist areas. Also found sporadically in our region is the Quaking Aspen, (Populus tremuloides). Western Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum aleuticum. It is often found on flood plains and is known to extract water up through it roots to control flooding in many areas. They also contain … Step 1 – Do not wash the buds -blend or pinch open the buds. *All photographs on this site were taken by Dana, Edmund or Sky Bressette unless otherwise noted. Many other tribal people collected the buds in the early spring and boiled in deer fat to make a fragrant salve. Economic uses of the black cottonwood include course lumber and the manufacture of wood products such as paper. (If you put the buds in the blender directly without oil they will stick to the sides and your clean up will be much more challenging.) Pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma are some examples but it may be used to help in any pulmonary condition where the phlegm is stubborn, impedes breathing, and cough is unproductive. Today Black Cottonwood is used for the interior layers of plywood and for paper products, especially high-grade book and magazine paper. You will notice that some of the buds have catkins inside. Old bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed. This resin, when turned into propolis by bees, contains a medicine that eases sore muscles, arthritic joints and helps to heal damaged skin. nonprofit family member, presents an art & music series, filmed & recorded in unique locations throughout the Pacific Northwest. I did try this one time and ended up with a bit of a mess so I personally prefer a ‘cold’ infusion such as above. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It was a substance collected from several varieties of Middle Eastern and East African trees and was said to have many curative powers. Take cuttings from a Black Cottonwood tree. The Iroquois used cottonwood to kill worms in adults, arthritis, skin eruptions and scabs and a decoction of bark taken as a laxative. Medicinal Uses of Cottonwood Answered by: Susan Eagles and Conrad Richter Question from: Sylevestion McGibbon Posted on: March 13, 2007 I am requesting information on the plant cottonwood leaves and its medicinal value, and seed for propagating. If you have a small amount you can simply pinch the buds with your fingernail. Distribution: Black Cottonwood is found from coastal Alaska to the mountains of California, with some growing as far south as northwest Mexico. Use by People: Natives used Black Cottonwood for many medicinal purposes. The Balm of Gilead is mentioned in the Christian bible and the Torah. The resin has been used to waterproof boxes and baskets, and the bark has been used to make buckets for storing and carrying food. It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. A compound called salicin, which is found in the leaves, buds and bark of cottonwood, has been proven to lower fevers and reduce inflammation and pain. Let’s take an in-depth look at how to use trees for medicine, but first let’s examine 10 of the more popular medicinal trees: Alder – Astringent used as a wound wash and healing agent on deep wounds. Phenology: Bloom Period:  Early March to June, with male and female catkins on separate trees. Cottonwood pollen is another major allergen. The Menominee put the resinous buds in fat which was then used in the nostrils for a head cold, and they used a decoction of resinous buds in fat as a salve for wounds. Broadhurst, C. Leigh, Ph.D and Duke, James A. Ph.D, (1998)  Propolis: An Age-Old Medicine, Mother Earth Living, Natural Home, Healthy Life March/April – Viewed on the web 12-01-2012 at. These barks were harvested in late spring. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma are some examples but it may be used to help in any pulmonary condition where the phlegm is stubborn, impedes breathing, and cough is unproductive. If your balm is too hard for your liking, melt with a little more oil. This is probably due to the salicylic acid that is extracted in alcohol, but not in fat. The wood is also used for fuel. Notify of . Considered as the "King of spices", black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a widely used spice which adds flavor of its own to dishes, and also enhances the taste of other ingredients.Piper nigrum has also been extensively explored for its biological properties and its bioactive phyto-compounds. and possibly Commiphora meccanensis. It was burned at ceremony as it was thought to heal the soul and protect it from dark sources. This scientific name comes from the fact that cottonwood has proved to be so useful over the centuries. It is the leaf buds that are used … If there is any water or solid material it will fall to the bottom of your container. Cut twigs into short pieces (1″-2″ long) and place into a pail. The cottony seeds are often seen drifting in a summer breeze, giving the tree its common name of Cottonwood. Medicinal use of Cottonwood: The inner bark was consumed by various native North American Indian tribes in order to prevent scurvy. trichocarpa (Torr. Projects Throughout the Bioregion. So strong is the need to propagate, even a fallen branch will sprout where it comes to rest. The numerous fluffy seeds of Black Cottonwood resemble snowfall in summer. Many First Peoples believed that Cottonwood was a sacred wood used as an instrument of communication between The Great Spirit who loves us all and humanity. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Bees collect the resin, which is an anti-infectant, for their hives and seal intruders (such as mice and other invaders) in the resin to prevent decay and protect the hive (Pojar and Mackinnon p. 46). Use a sharp pair of pruners or scissors and cut twigs that are less than a half inch in diameter. Other medicinal uses of cottonwood bark have been recorded such as treatment of whooping cough, tuberculosis, colds, and intestinal parasites. Like fine perfume or essential oil.…