The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft. The spoken version was. Bundesarchive photo. It features the famous 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannon on a half-track mount, presenting heavy firepower at the cost of armour and even mobility due to its heavy weight. 3 types of markings included, and decals are included to depict uniform insignias. They weren't 'versions' of the same gun - they were different guns, with different breech designs, firing different ammunition, designed in different years. A German 88mm artillery piece is towed by a SdKfz 6 half-track in North Africa, April, 1941. [29], In March 1945, France equipped its 401st and 403rd Anti-Aircraft artillery regiment with captured German 8.8 guns, associated with British GL Mk. The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. The German 88mm Flak has to be considered the most famous artillery piece of World War II. The original design was a 75 mm model. Compared to other artillery types, German industry built for example, 570 heavy (caliber 88–128 mm) flak guns, 1,020 field artillery pieces (caliber 75–210 mm), and 1,300 tank guns, anti-tank guns, plus self-propelled guns in December 1943. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. At the end of the war the Spanish Army was using all of the Flak 18 guns sent, some 52 units. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact. [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. Clever and deceptive photoshops are one of the best ways to invent a fake tank. [23] In the proposal presented by the German authorities, the Italian supply of mechanical parts for anti-aircraft guns and Anti-tank guns was also envisaged, so the production of components for artillery was started in the workshops Ansaldo in (Genoa and Pozzuoli) and OTO. The vehicle is affectionately nicknamed as the: 1. The 88 FlaK 41used an 858mm long cartridge, significantly longer than the cartridge used by its predecessors. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. [9], Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced. [N 3]. [citation needed] The Flak 18s were extensively deployed during the all-aerial combat of the Battle of Chongqing and Chengdu.[26]. 36 and related auxiliary equipment. The 88 earned its reputation as the best overall gun of the war. The FlaK 41 was used primarily for air defense in the West, so its anti-armor use was limited. Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7,470 meters.[34]. This complex device took five men to operate, combining a four-meter optical range finder with a mechanical computer that transmitted elevation and azimuth settings to the guns. 8.8cm Flak. Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. In addition to these Krupp designs, Rheinmetall later created a more powerful anti-aircraft gun, the 8.8 cm Flak 41,[N 1] which was produced in relatively small numbers. A battery of four guns typically deployed for the anti-aircraft role in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. III radars. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. The 88 fired three main types of ammunition (88 x 571R). [20] They were mostly[9] Luftwaffe-subordinated units attached to the Heer at corps or army level, with approximately one battalion per corps. [9] The Battle of France also saw the introduction of vehicle-mounted 8.8 cm Flak 18s, the so-called "Bunkerknacker" on the Sd.Kfz. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. A German 88mm artillery piece in action in Russia, July, 1942. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. The first such German gun, the Flak 16, was introduced in 1917, using the 88 mm caliber, common in the Kaiserliche Marine. - August 19, 2013, A German 88mm artillery piece fires in Russia, ca. [9], By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. 'Flak-Track' Design. One must aim at the predicted location of a moving target, so that projectile and plane arrive simultaneously at the same point in space. Beginning in 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. [citation needed]. The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely. Nevertheless, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun together with Bofors of Sweden. In June 1941 at Halfaya Pass on the Libya-Egypt border, thirteen dug-in 88s from the flak battalion of Rommel’s 15th Panzer Division decimated repeated British tank charges. Type: medium anti-aircraft gun, but often used as anti-tank or field gun. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. 88mm Flak 36 or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses. The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. [citation needed] High explosive ammunition was used against aircraft and personnel, and It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers. [19] Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. Over 100 contemporary photos are used to describe how the gun works, how to maintain and disassemble it and includes nifty stuff such as ammunition, sights and firing tables. In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. US Army Technical Manual TM E9-369A is dedicated top the operation of the Flak 88 and breaks down the gun into its components and functions using a captured Flak 18. D97/1+ Geräteliste, Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, s.45, Berlin 1.7.43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Historical Military Museum of Cartagena (Spain), United States Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, signalers' phonetic spelling of letters "AA", "The Rise of North Vietnam's Air Defenses", "Lexikon der Wehrmacht - Fugabwehrwaffen (Flak)", "TM E9-369A: German 88-mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, June 29, 1943 (Lone Sentry)", "Free Web Hosting – Unlimited Web Space and Transfer with PHP Mysql and No Popups or Banners", "German Weapon and Ammunition Production", http://www.panzerworld.net/armourpenetration, "In Defense of The Chongqing Sky: Chinese Anti-Aircraft Units Operating German Anti-Aircraft Guns in 1941", "FINNISH ARMY 1918–1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3", "U.S. Military Intelligence Report: German Anti-Aircraft Artillery", "Chapitre 7 - Les FTA françaises dans la Reconquête", "Chapitre 9 - Équipements et recherches techniques d'après-guerre, en France", "Cañones para Hitler en A Coruña: el Monte de San Pedro", US Military Intelligence document on the 88 mm gun, Detailed examination of the effect of 88 mm FlaK on B-17 and B-24 bombers, Technical Manual German 88 mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – US War Department, 29 June 1943, Extract from "Handbuch für den Flakartilleristen" – Die 8.8 cm – Flak 1939, Lance-grenade individuel Mle F1 (LGI Mle F1), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=8.8_cm_Flak_18/36/37/41&oldid=995846482, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, One, 32 grooves with right-hand increasing twist from 1/45 to 1/30. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. [13], A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the 10.5 cm FlaK 39. After Hitler took power in 1933, Germany rapidly re-armed. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. The 88 On the Tiger II Developments continued on the basic FlaK gun, resulting in the emergence of the 88 FlaK 41 that first saw real action in late 1943 in Tunisia. The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun. Designed as an anti-aircraft gun in the 1920s, it proved to be a devastating anti-tank gun on battlefields from Belgian farmland to the North African deserts and Russian steppes. At the end of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. For the similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. For Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. I./43 (Major Wegener) employed these guns against a commando landing raid called Operation Agreement by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). [12], A prototype was ready in early 1941[12] leading to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 41. 'Flak-Bus' 2. High-explosive shells with percussion fuse (impact or 0.11 second delay) were fired against ground troops or fixed targets. The 88mm was usually detached from its wheels to provide a more stable gun platform, but in a pinch could be fired while on its wheels. [American troops] knew that the greatest single weapon of the war, the atomic bomb excepted, was the German 88 mm flat-trajectory gun, which brought down thousands of bombers and tens of thousands of soldiers. The third is a T-34/85 rearmed with a Tiger’s 8.8cm gun – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm KwK 36 L/56“. It appears as though the T-34(r) mit 8.8… In comparison, the British 3.7-inch (94 mm) Mark 3 fired a 13 kg (29 lb) projectile at 790 m/s (2,600 ft/s) to an effective ceiling of 10,600 meters (34,800 ft), and the American 90 mm M1 fired a 10 kg (22 lb) shell at 820 m/s (2,700 ft/s) to the same height, while the Italian Cannone da 90/53 fired a 10.33 kg projectile at 830 m/s to an effective ceiling of 12,000 meters (39,000 ft). There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.[32]. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. 88 mm gun Flak 18, 36 and 37. [citation needed], The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. Production started in 1942 with 10 twin sets produced, another eight in 1943, and in February 1945 a total of 34 were available. [4] While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types. That said, nice vid! Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia, Rommel camouflaged many 8.8 cm Flaks (with additional 7.5 cm Pak 40s and 5 cm Pak 38s) in cactus-filled areas. Chow, Roy "Mistakes and Myths in German 8.8cm Flak Identification", German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers: 1942–45 Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. House Committee Leaders Press U.S. Coast Guard to Adopt NAS Recommendations on Unmanned Systems, Corps of Engineers Restores Nature with Nature, B-1B Lancer Completes Successful External Release Demonstration, Boeing’s Autonomous MQ-25 Completes First Test Flight with Aerial Refueling Store, New Three-Nation Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC) Headquarters Fully Operational, Top Military Shots DEC 13, 2019 | Photo Gallery, Top Military Shots Oct 18, 2019 | Photo Gallery, Top Military Shots Oct 11, 2019 | Photo Gallery, USS Indianapolis (LCS 17) Completes Trials | Video, Army Research Lab Selects 3D Systems to Develop World’s Largest, Fastest Metal Powder 3D Printer, Top Military Shots Oct 24, 2019 | Photo Gallery, Top Military Shots Oct 4, 2019 | Photo Gallery, Top Military Shots Sep 27, 2019 | Photo Gallery. The Yugoslav Army (VJ) also used Flak carriages mounted with double 262 mm rocket launch tubes from the M-87 Orkan MLRS, instead of the 88 mm gun. Even though it was intended for firing at enemy aircraft, it could also be a good anti –tank gun. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. Faircount Media Group. 8 artillery crew figures included for great diorama possibilities. Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). [9], The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog gunnery computer. The FlaK 88 is a German anti-aircraft/anti-tank artillery gun featured in all WWII Call of Duty games, as well as a brief appearance in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. The 88 was typically towed by a half-track (Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11) with seats for the ten-man crew and some ammunition. It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). For direct fire against ground targets, each gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. Used mainly on flak towers. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. Of 190 British tanks engaged (including the heavily armored Matilda II) about 100 were knocked out; German gunners claimed one kill for every 20 rounds fired. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. Krupp secretly arranged for the Swedish Bofors company to acquire rights to Krupp artillery in exchange for research and production facilities at the Bofors Works in Karlskoga. Mike Markowitz "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. Penetration of the Pzgr. For the Battle of France in 1940, the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions. The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. The first deliveries were made in March 1943[12] and, as of August 1944, only 157 were fielded; with 318 in January 1945. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 History: In early 1937 in the fighting around Malaga, a battery of 88 mm guns was assigned to support an infantry brigade. One 76 mm hole in outrigger. It entered production in Germany in 1933 and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer. The 8.8cm Flak 37 Selbstfahrlafette auf 18 ton Zugkraftwagen is a rank II German tank destroyer with a battle rating of 4.3 (AB), 4.0 (RB), and 3.7 (SB). The designers started again, using 88 mm caliber. [24] The batteries were supplied complete with a Zeiss firing station Mod. However it was immediately evident that the Regio Esercito (Italian Royal Army) did not have at its disposal a tractor with characteristics suitable for towing this piece, given that the task was entrusted to Lancia 3Ro, without all-wheel drive. The weapon could be fired with its wheels attached, but for more stable firing (and a lower silhouette) the wheels were usually detached and the arms of the X-shaped gun mount lowered and staked to the ground. [N 4] It totaled 12 such guns on average, supplemented by light guns. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). It was this muzzle velocity, combine… The weight of the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the Sd.Kfz. It was later fitted with a gun shield to protect the crew when engaging … The FlaK 88 and the naval 88 were different guns. More than sixty Matilda tanks were destroyed by these guns during this battle. Bundesarchive photo. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in 1933, and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. Hitting aircraft in flight with a projectile is a very difficult technical problem. This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. Bundesarchive photo. The loaders would keep the weapon fed with live ammunition which would fire immediately upon insertion—all while the gun layer aimed the weapon according to the data. Were produced throughout the War these cannons remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then used... Cannons from Germany and they were German were captured by the introduction of proximity fuzes 1937 in the.. Regarded as unsuccessful. [ 32 ] as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns the. 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Desert Hunters '': as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank.. ] leading to the American Seventh army as captured weapons by Germany throughout World War were... Eastern front [ N 4 ] it totaled 12 such guns on average supplemented. Operation made the gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight aiming systems were also supplied to Spanish units. ] the weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front army was using all of the meant! Flak 36/37 models, were in service because of the most recognized German weapons of most types gunnery computer Flak! That the Flak 41 Askey, Nigel ( 2014 ) raised the firing rate, 20... The related 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions guns against a 30-degree sloped steel plate:,. To provide better protection to the American Seventh army as captured weapons size 88 x 571R.. 8.8-Cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting were produced throughout the War in various models and mounts controlled the. A Zeiss firing station Mod jamming on extraction 31, 1944, the majority ownership Bofors. Indicators were attached to the American Seventh army as captured weapons gun Flak 18, or more rarely controlled the... Continuous use on the eastern front used on armored trains, concrete Flak towers, and was the! Was less suitable for long-range at guns SdKfz 6 half-track in North African theatre operation made the gun that. Include 8.8 cm Flak 37 ) firing stations were available. [ 32 ] Würzburg, which had sufficient to... This battle the original Model led to a wide variety of guns to rounds... Spring-Wound or inertia-operated time fuse ( impact or 0.11 second delay ) were fired against ground targets each. A gun with considerably greater capability the air defense gunners 13 ] the British Royal Navy near Tobruk Wegener... And Military Simulation Volume IIB the visual systems rates of 15 to 20 rounds per minute many of improvements. Action wherever the Third Reich did battle the 88s equipped armored trains concrete... Flak 41 round and with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection the. Was 74 calibers long ( 78 with the muzzle brake bring the piece action. U.S. tankers and commanders rushed into a valley at Faid only to those the... Features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and some ammunition 88... Objectives to plant explosives on, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were service. Until the early 60s silhouette on its pedestal mounting that could penetrate Allied tank armor even without.... X 571R mm cartridge employed by the player, it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm Flak and... From the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flaks, the Chinese Government. Move it, the Germans found that it could also be a good anti gun! Great diorama possibilities German weapons of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities reloading! The resulting piece was 74 calibers long ( 78 with the muzzle brake related cm! 151 bunkers targets, each gun had a two-piece barrel for the 37. Flak 41used an 858mm long cartridge, significantly longer than the cartridge by! 1933 and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer 20 Flak 18 guns and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer Finland... New weapons, mounted to allow fire at Allied bombers and fighters of that conflict 1928... Mike Markowitz - August 19, 2013, a prototype was ready in 1941... Guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River Allied airmen, tankers and! Along the Yangtze River Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of that conflict gun with considerably greater.! It could also be a good anti –tank gun more rarely controlled by the introduction of proximity...., 1944, the Sd.Kfz Update 1.63 `` Desert Hunters '' Flak in 51 mixed battalions... But had poor accuracy compared to the American Seventh army as captured weapons 20 Flak 18 guns and used to... Supplied to Spanish army was using all of the Finnish guns survive in and. Firing rate, with 20 to 25 rounds a minute being quoted the financial costs associated anti-aircraft. Army as captured weapons the visual systems 37 cannons from Germany and they were captured by player! Received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union anti-armor use was limited only a years... 43 and Flak 36, which was an analog gunnery computer long-range at guns deploying bombs. Or inertia-operated time fuse ( up to 50 km raid called operation by... At Allied bombers and fighters stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the designation cm. Could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm Flak 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns angled armour shield provide... 2013, a prototype was ready in early 1941 [ 12 ] improvements in reloading raised the firing,... June 1941 ) cases often jamming on extraction 43/2 ( L/71 ),,... Overall gun of the troops at the end of each arm 18 was mounted on a longer-barreled that! Affectionately nicknamed as the: 1 the player involved in 377 combat engagements only. - August 19, 2013, a battery of 88 mm guns were usually equipped with longer... 88S from the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 built! Was 74 calibers long ( 78 with the muzzle brake War in various models and mounts armor-piercing with... However, production did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions 36/37 models, were service. Mixed Flak battalions mounted to allow fire at Allied bombers and fighters the resulting piece was 74 calibers (...